The Bombardier CSeries is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-rangejet airliners being developed by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace. Models are the 110-seat CS100, and the 130-seat CS300. These were initially named C110 and C130, respectively.
During the demise of Fokker, Bombardier considered purchasing the company in order to gain access to their Fokker 100 100-seat short-haul aircraft. They eventually decided against a purchase and ended discussions in February 1996.
The Bombardier BRJX, or “Bombardier Regional Jet eXpansion”, was a project for a larger regional jet than the Canadair Regional Jet. Instead of 2–2 seating, the BRJX was to have a wider fuselage with 2–3 seating, and underwing engine pods. It was projected to seat 80 to 120 passengers, abutting the smallest narrow-body jetliners, like the 2–3 DC-9/MD-80/Boeing 717 or the 3–3 A318/737-500/737-600. The project was shelved by Bombardier in favour of stretching the CRJ700 into the CRJ900.
It was not long after that the 80-seat Embraer E-170 came to market, followed by the 110-seat E-195. Both models became bestsellers, and Bombardier had no product to compete with them at the “high end”.
In July 2004, Bombardier announced the development of the CSeries family of airliners to replace the cancelled BRJX project. The CSeries would be larger than the current Canadair Regional Jets, and capable of carrying 110 to 130 passengers. For the first time, Bombardier would be competing directly with the smallest size airliners from Boeing and Airbus. At the time, Bombardier expected the aircraft to be available by 2013.
In March 2005, Bombardier’s board decided to promote the plane to airlines to gather advance orders. Two models were announced: theC110 with layouts from 100-125 seats, and the C130 with layouts from 120-145 seats. The CSeries would feature new, more fuel-efficient engines and a higher percentage of composite materials in its fuselage, a strategy similar to that used on the widebody Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A350.
The aircraft were designed to seat passengers in a 2-3 arrangement in coach and a 2–2 arrangement in business/first class, similar to the Boeing 717. With the 2-3 arrangement, 80% of the seats would be aisle or window seats, as opposed to ‘middle’ seats (seats set between two other passengers’ seats). The aircraft would have under-wing turbofans. The CSeries’ cross section was designed to give enhanced seating comfort for passengers, with features like broader seats and armrests for the middle passenger and larger windows at every seat to give every passenger the physical and psychological advantages of ample natural light.
In May 2005, Bombardier secured agreements with the Federal Government of Canada, the Provincial Government of Quebec, and the Government of the United Kingdom for support and loans for the CSeries project. The Canadian government has committed US$350 million in financing; the British government has committed US$300 million. The program will cost about $3.5 billion, and Bombardier will share the cost with suppliers and governments.
The fuselage will be built by China Aviation Industry Corp. I (AVIC I)’ affiliate Shenyang Aircraft Corporation. Final assembly of the aircraft was to be at Mirabel Airport, Mirabel, outside Montreal, Quebec. Substantial portions of the aircraft were to be constructed at Bombardier facilities in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
On 31 January 2006, Bombardier announced it would not go forward with plans to develop the CSeries after it failed to secure any significant orders. Bombardier stated it would keep a small team of roughly 50 employees working on the CSeries marketing plan, and including other risk sharing partners in the program. With the CSeries on hold, Bombardier announced on 18 February 2006 that it would begin work on the 100-seat CRJ1000 regional jet.
On 31 January 2007, Bombardier announced that work on the aircraft would continue. In November 2007, Bombardier announced that the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan (now PW1000G) would be the exclusive powerplant for the CSeries. On 22 February 2008, Bombardier Aerospace announced that its parent company’s Board of Directors had granted it the authority to offer formal sales proposals of the CSeries family to airline customers.
On 13 July 2008, in a press conference on the eve of the opening of the Farnborough Airshow, Bombardier Aerospace announced the launch of the CSeries, with a letter of interest for 60 aircraft (including 30 options) from Lufthansa. The final assembly of the aircraft would be done at a new assembly facility to be built beside the existing one where the CRJ700 and CRJ900 are assembled in Mirabel, north of Montreal. Ghafari Associates will work on redeveloping the Montreal manufacturing site to accommodate CSeries production. The CSeries aircraft will use the Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics suite, an integrated cockpit system made up of 15 inch displays, with comprehensive navigation, communications, surveillance, engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS), and aircraft maintenance systems.
The CSeries is designed for the 100- to 149-seat market category. This market is estimated by Bombardier at 19,333 aircraft, representing more than $250 billion revenue over the next 20 years. Bombardier expects to be able to capture up to half of this market with the CSeries, currently projected to enter service in 2013. First flight for the CSeries is expected in 2012. The CSeries would feature a five-abreast cabin with larger windows and overhead luggage bins.
Mongolian airline Eznis Airways has a letter of interest for seven CSeries. Qatar Airways had previously been in talks with Bombardier, but broke off talks after disagreeing on terms. An unnamed lessor was understood to be in talks for 40 aircraft. On 11 March 2009, Bombardier announced their first firm orders for the CSeries. Lufthansa, who originally had signed a letter of interest for 60 aircraft, firmed up an order for 30. The aircraft will be operated by Lufthansa subsidiary Swiss European Air Lines.
In March 2009, Bombardier also announced that the C110 and C130 were being redesignated the CS100 and CS300, respectively. On 30 March 2009, Bombardier inked the second CSeries order, with airliner lessor Lease Corporation International (LCI) of Dublin, Ireland ordering 3 CS100s and 17 CS300s, becoming the launch customer of the latter. LCI also hold options for a further 20 aircraft.
Republic Airways Holdings ordered 40 CS300 aircraft with options for an additional 40 in February 2010. In March 2010, easyJet stated that the company is having “ongoing discussions with Bombardier regarding CSeries. In December 2009, United Airlines expressed interest in using the CS100 and CS300 for replacing the now retired 737-300 and 737-500 aircraft. But no plans or orders have been made by United Airlines as of December 2011.
The CSeries programme has several major suppliers including, Shenyang Aircraft (centre fuselage), Alenia Aeronautica (horizontal and vertical stabilisers), Fokker Elmo (wiring and interconnection systems), Parker Hannifin (fuel and hydraulics systems), Goodrich (flap and slat actuation systems, as well as engine nacelles), and Rockwell Collins (avionics).Deliveries of the CS100 are expected to start in 2013, and CS300 deliveries are to follow a year later.
The CSeries cabin would also have large, rotating overhead storage bins, allowing each passenger to stow a sizeable carry-on bag on board. Compared to the cabins of current in-service narrowbody aircraft, the CSeries is to provide airlines with the highest overhead bin volume per passenger and a wider aisle that would allow for faster boarding and disembarkation of passengers.
The CSeries aircraft contain 70% advanced materials comprising 46% composite materials and 24% aluminium-lithium which allows for a 15% lower seat-mile cost and a significant reduction in maintenance costs. Computer software design tools were used on the project, including CATIA and HyperSizer, and similar technology employed in the Learjet 85.
In January 2010, JP Morgan released a report stating Bombardier are considering a 150-seat version of the CSeries. Bombardier called the report speculative, noting that the CSeries development program “is in the joint definition phase where we will be able to add greater product definition and that includes the ability to make changes before the final design is frozen”.
|Passengers||125 (1-class, dense)
110 (1-class, standard)
100 (2-class, mixed)
|145 (1-class, dense)
130 (1-class, standard)
120 (2-class, mixed)
|Seat Pitch||30 in (76 cm) (1-class, dense)
32 in (81 cm) (1-class, standard)
36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class, mixed)
|Seat Width||19 in (48 cm)|
|Flight crew||2 (pilot, co-pilot)|
|Length||34.9 m (115 ft)||38.0 m (124.7 ft)|
|Wingspan||35.1 m (115 ft)|
|Wing Area (net)||112.3 m2 (1,209 sq ft)|
|Tail height||11.5 m (38 ft)|
|Cabin width||3.27 metres (129 in)|
|Cabin height||2.13 metres (84 in)|
|Fuselage max diameter||3.7 m (12 ft)|
|Max takeoff weight||54,931 kg (121,100 lb)||58,151 kg (128,200 lb)||59,557 kg (131,300 lb)||63,095 kg (139,100 lb)|
|Max landing weight||50,576 kg (111,500 lb)||55,339 kg (122,000 lb)|
|Cargo Volume||23.2 m3 (820 cu ft)||30 m3 (1,100 cu ft)|
|Max range||4,074 km (2,200 nmi)||5,463 km (2,950 nmi)||4,074 km (2,200 nmi)||5,463 km (2,950 nmi)|
|Max cruise speed||Mach 0.82 (870 km/h, 470 kn, 541 mph)|
|Typical cruise speed||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h, 447 kn, 514 mph)|
|Take off run at MTOW||1,509 m (4,951 ft)||1,902 m (6,240 ft)||1,661 m (5,449 ft)||1,890 m (6,200 ft)|
|Landing field length||1,350 m (4,430 ft)||1,448 m (4,751 ft)|
|Service ceiling||12,497 m (41,001 ft)|
|Engines||2 x Pratt & Whitney PW1500G|
|Thrust per Engine||93.4 kN (21,000 lbf)||103.6 kN (23,300 lbf)||93.4 kN (21,000 lbf)||103.6 kN (23,300 lbf)|